Roderick James McIntosh (Ph.D., Cantab, 1979) excavates (continuing almost 30 years) at Jenne-jeno, Mali (considered the oldest city in sub-Saharan Africa). He also dug in Ghana and directed archaeological projects in Senegal and at several other locales within the Middle Niger of Mali. He has also held a Visiting Professorship at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) from 2002-2005. In 1990 he was a Guggenheim Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford); in 1991 he was Senior Fulbright Fellow at the University of Dakar, Senegal, and in 2000 at the University of Mali. His principal interests are in the later prehistory of Africa, the origin of complex societies worldwide (esp. urbanism), palaeoclimate and human response, the intellectual history of archaeology, and the suppression of the illicit international traffick in art and antiquities.