The Antarctic Peninsula is one the regions of the world that has experienced the highest impacts of climate change. In the last 40 years the mean annual air temperature has increased 2.8 degrees C causing massive ice shelves to disintegrate, declines in sea ice extent and a strong impact on all trophic levels of the ecosystem. Dr.
formerly “Climate Science” this has been updated in recognition of the fact that ALL of our articles, events, etc. involve climate sciience. ”Climate change” is intended to suggest changing elements of the climate: e.g., shifts in global oceanic and atmospheric circulation and ensuing changes to temperature, precipitation, groundwater levels, saltwater intrusion.
Respiration by plants and microorganisms is primarily responsible for mediating carbon exchanges between the biosphere and atmosphere. Climate warming has the potential to influence the activity of these organisms, altering the exchanges between carbon pools. Traditionally, the respiratory release of CO2 into the atmosphere is thought to be more temperature-sensitive than photosynthesis (carbon fixation), generating a positive climate-ecosystem carbon feedback with the potential to accelerate climate warming by up to 1.4 times.
Biodiversity is an extremely important component of the Earth System that is both difficult to quantify and vital to understand. In a recent special issue of Remote Sensing, several articles describe the progress we have made in quantifying various aspects of biodiversity using novel imaging technologies. Not long ago the prospect of identifying species from space was considered extremely unlikely, but in the editorial titled “Biological Diversity Mapping Comes of Age,” Dr.
Earth’s climate system includes several patterns of climate variability at the hemispheric scale. One of the best known of these is the El-Nino/Southern Oscillation, which influences weather across much of the globe. Another important feature of the climate system is the Southern Annular Mode (also known as the Antarctic Ocean Oscillation), which is an index of the pressure gradient between the mid- and high-latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Over the last few decades, the dominance of the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has been increasing.
Methane, a greenhouse gas second in importance only to carbon dioxide, has built up rapidly in the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution due to human emissions. It was believed that prior to the 19th century,
Dust-on-snow events may not sound like a big deal, but they have a major impact on the Colorado River Basin watershed, which serves approximately 27 million people. Fresh snow reflects over 80% of sunlight back into space,