Subpolar ocean gyres (large systems of rotating ocean currents) in the Southern Hemisphere are found poleward of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current near the Weddell and Ross Sea. They play a key role in the global energy and water budgets. These gyres are crucial for the transport of heat around the planet, as well as the distribution of nutrients and marine species. Thus, the subpolar gyres are important in the mixing and transformation of water masses. In a recent study, Dr.
Earth’s climate is characterized by persistent westerly jets (eastward flow) in the upper troposphere, located in the mid-latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere, which are associated locally with strong weather systems. The location of these jets is of paramount importance to human societies, as these are collocated with maximum in precipitation rates and surface winds in the extratropical regions.
Large-scale carbon sequestration involves capturing carbon dioxide emitted from power plants and injecting it into underground reservoirs for long-term storage. Leakage from these storage reservoirs could lead to groundwater contamination, requiring that the spread of CO2 be monitored during and after injection. Seismic surveys are one key monitoring tool, but inferring the distribution CO2 deep in the subsurface from seismic reflection data can be very challenging.
Venkatachalam Ramaswamy, Director, Geophysical Fluids Laboratory, Princeton University, delivers a lecture entitled, “Understanding Trends and Extremes in Climate”.