By Alisa Zomer
Even before the climate negotiations began this week, Typhoon Haiyan sent a message to the world – a message that is still making waves. The strength and trajectory of Typhoon Haiyan was unprecedented, even for the Philippines, an island nation that experiences more disasters than most. In response, the lead Filipino negotiator declared a fast for the duration of the climate negotiations until progress has been made to “stop this madness.”
Rit Aggarwala is the former director of long-term planning and sustainability for New York City and currently special advisor to Michael Bloomberg in his role as chair of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.
Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to dramatically alter biodiversity and species distributions around the globe, particularly if many species are unable to disperse to new habitats or evolve and adapt to new climatic conditions in their current habitat.
The Yale Climate and Energy Institute will host a panel discussion on how global warming will affect New England in the 21st century and how the region is preparing for the coming changes. The meeting will take place at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, in Burke Auditorium of Kroon Hall, on 195 Prospect Street in New Haven and include short talks by climate and infrastructure experts and a panel discussion with Senator Chris Murphy.
Join us for a discussion of these topics with panelists:
– Senator Chris Murphy (D, CT)
Fran Ulmer is chair of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, appointed by President Obama in March 2011. In June 2010, President Obama appointed her to the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. From 2007 to 2011, Ms. Ulmer was Chancellor of the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). Before that, she was a Distinguished Visiting Professor of Public Policy and Director of the Institute of Social and Economic Research at UAA. Ms.
Radley Horton from Columbia University Earth Institute will speak on climate projections for New York City. The $20 billion Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency (SIRR) Plan for New York is grounded upon climate risk information provided by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). This expert panel, tasked with advising the City on climate-related issues, completed a ‘rapid response’ climate assessment with updated climate projections.
How will global warming affect New England in the 21st century and how is the region preparing for the coming changes? On September 13th Yale Climate & Energy Institute hosted a town hall meeting on these questions, featuring short talks by climate and infrastructure experts and a panel discussion with Senator Chris Murphy (D, CT).
Funded research helped secure a $1.0MM Development Innovation Ventures Stage 2 grant from USAID to support research and testing of new marketing strategies on behalf of improved cookstoves in India and Bangladesh. Research results are discussed in an article (“Low demand for non-traditional cookstove technologies”) published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, here.
The Timbuktu region has been chosen as a case study to research human response to late Holocene climate change for a number of reasons. We now understand that highly dense populations and an original urban civilization emerged in the first or even second millennium BC in this 170,000 km2 arid-lands floodplain without influence or stimulation from the Mediterranean or Egypt. The multiple urban societies we are only now discovering and excavating thrived, despite an overall decline in conditions, until a few centuries ago. However, there has been virtually no high-resolution climate research in the area, and in fact, there have been no lake core studies in the Middle Niger region, or indeed throughout the western Sahel. The targeted waterbodies of Lake Faguibine and its surrounding smaller lakes are located 60 km west of Timbuktu. Since the mid 1990’s, Lake Faguibine, once a major regional center of agriculture and aquaculture, has suffered a major drop in water levels. We believe that Faguibine and its surrounding smaller lakes are highly responsive to both fluctuations in the water volume of the Niger River, reflecting precipitation falling on the rainforest zone, far up river, and also geomorphological processes.
The modern and future implications of continuing droughts in the Sahel are of immediate concern since there is potential for heightened international conflict over scarce water resources in arid environments. However, understanding historical processes of human response to climate change provides insight into plausible social actions that can be implemented to mitigate population stresses caused by future long-term dry episodes. Understanding human response to climate change has been a recent focus of many archaeologists, earth scientists and various international organizations, and it is believed that such an understanding can come from a interdisciplinary and diachronic study spanning numerous episodes of climate variations and of human social response to those variations.
Coutros P, 2014:“Clustered settlements of the Gorbi Valley, Mali” in: Urbanization in Ancient Africa, Lippiello, Lauren and Douglas Park (eds.) Yale University Publications in Anthropology: New Haven.
Coutros P, In preparation: “Survey in the Malian Lakes Region: Results and Initial Interpretations” [targeted for Azania]
Coutros P (with Peter Douglas) “Along a Dynamic River in a Changing Environment”, In McIntosh, R. et al. (eds.) African Palaeoclimate and Human Response, Special Issue of The African Archaeological Review (June 2014)
McIntosh RJ, in press. (end 2013), “Reactions to desertification (5,000-1,000 BCE)” , In (eds.) Joseph C. Miller and Kenneth Wachsberger. New Encyclopaedia of Africa. NY: Ch. Scribners
McIntosh RJ, In press (end 2013) “Water management and water perception: understanding Middle Niger niche specialization”, in (ed. Vernon Scarborough), Water and Humanity: Historical Overview. Vol. 1 of UNESCO History of Water and Civilization. Paris: UNESCO
McIntosh RJ, Jean Maley and Robert Vernet. In Preparation: African Palaeoclimate and Human Response, to appear in Special Issue of The African Archaeological Review (June 2014)
McIntosh RJ, Jean Maley and Robert Vernet. In Preparation. The African Anthopocene: New Research on Late Holocene Palaeoclimatic Reconstructions and Human Response to the End of the African Humid Period, to appear in Special Issue of The African Archaeological Review (June 2014).